Essay on abdul qadeer khan
According to media reports, A. He also maintained a close relationship with the Pakistan Air Force. The United States began to think that Pakistan was giving nuclear weapons technology to North Korea, to get ballistic missile technology in exchange.
Khan also came under renewed scrutiny following the September 11, attacks in the U. He allegedly sold nuclear technology to Iran. However, he was pardoned in , but placed under house arrest. On the 22nd of August , the Pakistani government declared that Khan had been diagnosed with prostate cancer and was undergoing treatment.
He was released from house arrest in February Khan was also a key figure in the establishment of several engineering universities in Pakistan. The place, where Khan served as both executive member and director, has been named as Dr. Another school, Dr. Khan thus played a vital role in bringing metallurgical engineering courses to various universities of Pakistan. Despite his international image, Khan remains widely popular among Pakistanis and he is considered domestically to be one of the most-influential and respected scientists in Pakistan.
Brown Lester R. Eric Drexler. Hans D. Khan's company, FDO, provided consulting services to a Dutch-German uranium enrichment facility called URENCO that supplied fuel for peaceful nuclear energy uses although the double edge of nuclear energy technology is its frequent applicability to weaponry. He realized that the company's centrifuge designs could potentially be used to enrich uranium to bomb-level concentrations, and, having been given a security clearance by the Dutch government which at the time had no reason to suspect him of anything , he simply walked through the URENCO facility taking notes, in Urdu.
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When questioned, which he rarely was, he said that he was writing letters home to Pakistan. Later he became acquainted with a Dutch co-worker, the machinist and photographer Frits Veerman, from whom he obtained additional information about, and photos of, the URENCO centrifuge designs.
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Veerman eventually realized that Khan was a Pakistani spy. He tried to alert his superiors, but was told to keep quiet lest he make trouble for his company lab. Finally the suspicions of the Dutch government were raised by Khan's persistent questioning of a variety of individuals on technological subjects. In late Dutch intelligence agents instructed FDO to move Khan to a less sensitive position, but by now it was too late.
Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan | National hero and father of Pakistan’s nuclear bomb
At the end of that year Khan returned to Pakistan with a good grasp of the most sophisticated uranium-enrichment technology known to the Western world. He assumed leadership of one branch of Pakistan's nuclear weapons program, the one concerned with the effort to make a bomb from highly enriched uranium. Various legal proceedings launched against Khan in the Netherlands came to nothing, and he twice eluded arrest by Dutch intelligence agents when the United States Central Intelligence Agency CIA told them to hold off so that additional information could be gathered about Khan's contacts.
The CIA, however, was unaware of the full extent of Khan's knowledge and network of contacts. Broad and David E. Sanger of the New York Times , but we didn't realize the size of his universe. Uranium from Pakistani mines was sent to the facility, and Khan made steady progress with its enrichment to the high concentrations necessary for a nuclear bomb.
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He and his staff claimed that the lab was doing only work relevant to the peaceful uses of nuclear technology, but engineers under Khan's charge also worked on rocketry and weapons delivery systems. Precision parts were imported from a Khan-developed network of suppliers, many of them in Europe, who may have believed that the materials they were sending would be used for nuclear power rather than nuclear weaponry.
Pakistan conducted a nuclear test for the first time only in , after a comparable test by India, but Khan had probably produced several nuclear warheads by the late s, and Pakistan may have threatened to use them during a period of tension with India. At around this time, Khan apparently began offering his expertise to other countries. Iraq, whose initial efforts were disrupted by the Gulf War of , and Iran, which may have received an inferior version of his designs, may have been among his first clients.
Khan's motivations were complex. Partly they were financial; already a renowned figure in Pakistan, he became extremely wealthy and powerful, able to operate partly beyond the reach of Pakistani government control. Khan enjoys almost legendary status across Pakistan. Khan's activities were closely followed by Western intelligence agencies, with an American nonproliferation official telling Langewiesche that "our interest in this man is so intense that you can assume if he takes a toilet break and goes to the john, we know about it.
Pakistan was an ally of the United States and became a much closer one after the terrorist attacks of September 11, ; pressing the Pakistani government and military, layers of which were closely involved with Khan's activities, for a crackdown on the rogue scientist was a delicate operation.
Khan traveled freely among Asian, Middle Eastern, and African capitals, and his assistants openly advertised his expertise at conferences and trade shows. The list of Khan clients grew during the s, but its ultimate membership remains unknown. Khan, by his own testimony in a confession, shared information with Iran, Libya, and North Korea.
He had contacts in many other countries, but whether they were customers or suppliers remained the focus of intense investigation. It was Libya that proved Khan's undoing; after the interception of a ship loaded with centrifuge parts, linked to a Khan associate and headed for Libya, Libyan leader Muammar Quaddafi decided to suspend his nuclear weapons program and cooperate with Western investigators.
Pakistan releases 'father' of nuclear bomb from house arrest
The documents Libya released showed a reliance on the URENCO centrifuge designs mastered by Khan, and some of them contained details pointing toward an origin in Khan's lab, perhaps with Khan himself. Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf was finally forced to act. He launched an investigation that resulted in Khan's nationally televised confession of February 4, , a carefully worded speech in which Khan admitted to "alleged proliferation activities" as quoted by Langewiesche without going into many specifics. Khan was placed under house arrest at his mansion near Rawalpindi.
Since then, investigators from the United States and from the International Atomic Energy Commission have tried to locate parts of the far-flung network that Khan put in place, but U. Reportedly suffering from prostate cancer, he could only watch from the sidelines as the potentially terrifying processes he had set in motion began to unfold. Toggle navigation.
Khan Biography A. Khan Biography. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists , September Financial Times , February 3, Time , February 14, Online "Pakistan's nuclear hero, world's No. User Contributions: 1.