Pope urban ii speech essay
Bohemond remained in Antioch, having achieved his goal of taking Antioch for himself, but this produced delay of the pilgrimage to Jerusalem and proved devastating to Roman and Byzantine relations. The second Crusader state, the Principality of Antioch , was established on November 5, Raymond of Toulouse was left the leader of the Crusaders and finally set out for Jerusalem January 13, Raymond walked barefoot, appropriate for a leader of a pilgrimage.
He traveled safely on the coast to Tripoli, Lebanon, where the Emir of Tripoli purchased immunity and gave them supplies. While there, he discovered the Maronites, an Eastern Catholic community in the mountains of Lebanon that had resisted Turkish rule, and who confirmed loyalty to the Pope in Before their arrival, the Fatimid governor evacuated the Christians from the city, but allowed the Jews to stay. Raymond of Toulouse set up post on Mount Zion. Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine, was joined by his brother, Eustace of Boulogne, and Tancred, and together they covered the northwest to the Jaffa Gate.
Morale sank, as an initial attack by the Crusaders failed, and water became scarce.
Pope Urban II orders first Crusade - HISTORY
A Genoese fleet arrived with materials to help them scale the walls of the heavily fortified city. But then the priest Peter Desiderius had a vision of the deceased Bishop Adhemar, who urged the Crusaders to fast and then walk barefoot around the city to atone for their sins. It was Godfrey of Bouillon who first breached the northern wall on July 15, , and the Crusaders flooded into the city of Jerusalem. Many inhabitants fled the city or purchased their freedom. The Fatimid governor and about who had withdrawn into the Tower of David paid ransom to Raymond of Toulouse for their lives and were allowed to escape.
Maddened after three years of frustration and suffering, the Crusaders massacred both Muslim and Jew within the city. The Crusaders completed their pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre and thanked God in a solemn ceremony. On July 22, , Godfrey of Bouillon was chosen as the ruler of Jerusalem.
One of his first actions was to establish canons in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Only the vow to fulfill God's will on the pilgrimage to Jerusalem could have sustained the crusaders, who were consistently outnumbered and faced near-starvation during the bitter winter at Antioch. Fulcher of Chartres reported that Jerusalem was left with only " knights and as many footmen" to defend Jerusalem and the surrounding area. Veneration of the True Cross was a prerequisite prior to the Crusaders entering battle. Godfrey consolidated the territory around Jerusalem. Hearing of an advancing Egyptian force to recover Jerusalem, the Crusaders launched a surprise attack and routed the Egyptians near Ascalon in August Godfrey died after only a year on July 18, Emissaries were sent to his brother Baldwin, the ruler of the County of Edessa, who gave Edessa to his cousin Baldwin of Le Bourg and headed for Jerusalem.
The Latin Crusader States lived a fragile existence, for most of the Crusaders, having fulfilled their vows, went home to Europe. But they were able to survive because of Muslim disunity. Several crusaders, among them Stephen of Blois who had retreated at Antioch, arrived in to complete their pilgrimage vow in reaching Jerusalem and assist Baldwin in consolidating the region.
Stephen was killed at the Second Battle of Ramla in May , achieving an honorable death. King Baldwin secured a lifeline to Europe with the capture of several Mediterranean ports, including the natural harbor of Acre in , which would become the center of trade for the Kingdom.
He also captured Beirut and Sidon, Lebanon in and incorporated the cities into the Kingdom of Jerusalem. King Baldwin I was concerned about the dearth of inhabitants in Jerusalem, for there were not enough people to carry on the daily activities and function of the city. He learned that there were many Christians living in servitude beyond the Jordan in Arabia. He invited them to live in the Holy City and promised them freedom and improved living conditions.
They readily accepted his offer and the city benefited from their arrival. The only one to stay loyal to Emperor Alexius, he was invited to Constantinople and turned Latakia over to the Byzantines. Upon his return, he set his sights on Tripoli, and built a fortress called Mount Pilgrim near the city. Mary Latin. In he captured ancient Byblos, named Jubail in Arabic, where the first Crusader castle of Gibelet was built. The fourth Crusader State, the County of Tripoli , was established. He brought his wife Morphia of Melitene, Armenia and their daughters with him to Jerusalem, and appointed his cousin Joscelin of Courtenay as the new Count of Edessa.
During his reign he helped found the Templar Knights and granted them space in the Temple of Solomon. A major victory was the capture of Tyre in Lebanon during the summer of Prior to his death in , Baldwin II designated his oldest daughter Melisende , her husband Fulk, and 2 year-old grandson Baldwin as his heirs.
Melisende as Queen regnant and her husband Fulk V of Anjou were anointed and crowned, the first coronation in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on September 14, They had two sons, Baldwin and Amaury. Baldwin III became sole ruler over Easter season in , with his mother continuing in an advisory capacity. His most notable achievement was the capture of Ascalon from the Egyptian Fatimids in , finally giving the Kingdom of Jerusalem full control of the coast of Palestine. He also improved relations with the Byzantine Empire.
An important event was the foundation of the military orders , instituted to defend Outremer and protect the renewed flow of pilgrims into the Holy Land. The military orders were composed of monks who served as knights or performed religious, clerical, and civic functions, as well as the lay who assisted the knights.
The Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem in Monks under Brother Gerard provided staffing and cared for ill and injured pilgrims, crusaders, and the populace.
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They were recognized in by Pope Paschal II. In time they added a military function under Raymond of Le Puy. The Knights Hospitaller wore a white cross and protected pilgrims who entered Jerusalem. The Knights Templar were French knights and likely the first to perform military service; instituted in under Hugh of Payens, they wore a red cross and were responsible for the defense of Jerusalem. The Order of St. Lazarus was primarily a charitable organization and staffed a hospital for victims of leprosy. They maintained their headquarters in the City of Acre until Thomas of Acre were named after the English martyr St.
The Knights of the Hospital of St. King Baldwin I built the castle at Montreal in Jordan in , an important site along the caravan trade route from Egypt to the Levant. Important to defense, subsequent Latin leaders continued to produce Crusader castles throughout their territories. Fulcher of Chartres wrote in his third book prior to his death in , "Consider, I pray, and reflect how in our time God has transferred the West into the East. For we who were Occidentals now have been made Orientals.
He who was a Roman or a Frank is now a Galilaean, or an inhabitant of Palestine Some have taken wives not merely of their own people, but Syrians, or Armenians, or even Saracens who have received the grace of baptism There are here too grandchildren and great-grandchildren.
One cultivates vines, the other the fields. The one and the other use mutually the speech and idioms of the different languages Those who were strangers are now natives; and he who was a sojourner now has become a resident Therefore why should one who has found the East so favorable return to the West?
Therefore God wishes to enrich us all and draw us to Himself as his most dear friends. And because He wishes it, we also freely desire the same; and what is pleasing to Him we do with a loving and submissive heart, that with Him we may reign happily throughout eternity. William of Tyre made the point that "a state of tranquility" occurred during her reign. Anne Church in Jerusalem when her youngest sister Yvette lived there, and building the Church and convent of St. Lazarus at Bethany where Yvette eventually served as abbess.
She was naturally supportive of the construction of the Armenian Cathedral of St. James in the southwest quarter during the s. Both the Armenian Cathedral and the Holy Sepulchre were restored about the same time. There is registered in her name an endowment to the Orthodox monastery of St. Sabas in Jerusalem. The building and renovation of Churches throughout the Holy Land served as a priority for the Latin States.
More than churches were either built, restored, or in use during the Latin Crusader period.
Fifty years after the capture of Jerusalem, the Crusaders dedicated the church in Romanesque architecture on 15 July The Church one visits today is the one built by the Crusaders! Fulk and Melisende's second son King Amaury of Jerusalem was also artistically inclined and joined the Byzantine Emperor Manuel Comnenus and Bishop Ralph of Bethlehem in sponsoring a complete redecoration of the Church of the Nativity.
John the Baptist at Sebastiya, the Church of St. Anne at Sephoris, and the Church of the Resurrection at Nablus.
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He also recognized the artistic ability of William of Tyre and, in addition to appointing him tutor to his son Baldwin, urged him to write his famous Historia. He appointed him Chancellor of Jerusalem in He offered the same absolution and remission of sins as Urban II to those who went to confession and took up the Cross to the Holy Land, as well as the protection of the Church for wives and property. On the way to the Holy Land, a fleet of ships from England led by Hervey de Glanvill, Constable of Suffolk, was forced to land in Portugal because of bad weather.
Relations with the Byzantine Emperor Manuel remained uneasy throughout the Crusade. The unruly German army was massacred by the Turks at Dorylaeum in Asia Minor, although Conrad and a small contingent survived. In view of their reduced force, they decided to attack Damascus. Louis and Conrad set out for Damascus on July 24, , but their lack of coordination forced them to retreat within four days!
The Speech Of Pope Urban II Essay
The greatest warrior of the Muslims was Saladin. Noted for his chivalrous behavior, he was respected by both Muslims and Christians alike. Saladin also proved to be a skilled diplomat. The Muslim world was completely divided into the Shiite and Sunni religious sects, as well as the warring secular nations of the Syrians, Egyptians, and Turks. Saladin was the one who brought all of them into one unified Islamic force in the twelfth century.
THE CRUSADES TO THE HOLY LAND
Shirkuh became vizier of Egypt, the secular head of government under the Shiite Caliph. Shirkuh died shortly thereafter in , leaving his 31 year-old nephew Saladin as vizier of Egypt. Saladin was a Sunni Muslim in the predominantly Shiite land of Egypt. When the Shiite Caliph of Egypt died, Saladin extended the spiritual authority of the Sunni Caliph of Baghdad over Egypt, but at the same time allowed the Shiites to practice their own form of Islamic faith.
The religious world of Islam was united.